Dating abbreviations meanings
To avoid any confusion when referring to the precise moment of noon or midnight, we recommend using the designations 12 noon and 12 midnight instead.
Another source of confusion is the lack of a date designator in the 12-hour system, making it impossible to logically identify a correct moment in time when only a date and am (midnight) is provided.
However, if the abbreviation would help the reader recognize a term or find your article via search, then it is permissible to include an abbreviation in the abstract, even if it is not used three times.
When you use an abbreviation in both the abstract and the text, define it in both places upon first use.
Starting at midnight, hours are numbered from 0 to 24, removing the need for designations like am and pm.
The second period, marked pm, covers the 12 hours from noon to midnight.To convert am or pm time to the 24-hour format, use these rules: Most countries around the world today use the 24-hour system.However, the 12-hour format, including am and pm, is officially used in a number of countries, including the United States, Canada (except Québec), Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines.We recommend that you avoid them, unless the abbreviation is well-known and there is no alternative running head that would be better.If you do use an abbreviation in a running head, you can use it straightaway without definition.
For example, you might cite a test or measure that has an abbreviation and then provide its citation (for a common case, here is how to cite the ). Writing out the full term in the title will ensure potential readers know exactly what you mean, and if your article is formally published, it will ensure it is accurately indexed.