Nobel prize for elucidating the molecular structure of dna speed dating san antonio texas
Further, her famous “Photograph 51”, an X-ray image of DNA showing a fuzzy x-shaped structure was the last hint that Watson and Crick needed to make their breakthrough.
They proposed a model in which DNA was a double helix of two anti-parallel strands with the phosphate on the outside and the bases pairing with each other on the inside.
For many years, in fact, it had been thought that protein mediated the transmission of traits and characteristics.
This idea persisted until the seminal experiments of the American Oswald Avery in 1944.
After Miescher’s isolation of the curious substance, other researchers then took up the baton and got to grips with characterising its chemical structure.
Albrecht Kossel, a biochemist from Rostock in Germany determined that “nuclein” was composed of both protein and non-protein portions.
Avery succeeded in transferring disease-causing ability between bacterial strains and in proving that it was the nucleic acid that was transmitting this ability.
The three scientists share equally in the prize “for having mapped, at a molecular level, how cells repair damaged DNA and safeguard the genetic information,” according to a Nobel Foundation statement. Later, Modrich, a professor of biochemistry and genomics at the Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, described mismatch repair, which reduces the frequency of DNA replication-related errors.The stage was now set for perhaps the most spectacular discovery in the history of research into DNA: determination of its molecular structure and the realisation that the sequence of bases was responsible for determining the traits observed by Mendel, Sutton, Boveri and others, and was the “code-script” spoken of by Schrödinger.The discovery of the structure of DNA by the American James Watson, the British scientist Francis Crick and the New Zealand-born Maurice Wilkins was undoubtedly inspired by this earlier work.He was able to show that, under natural conditions, the number of guanine nucleobases is equal to the number of cytosines, and that the number of adenines is equal to the number of thymine nucleobases.This strongly suggested that these four bases were pairing with each other in DNA molecules, i.e., guanine with cytosine, and adenine with thymine.
However, it also received much more direct help: from the British crystallographer Rosalind Franklin.